Las pruebas científicas son cada vez más, y contundentes: la nutrición vegetariana (la dieta vegetariana o ser vegetariano) cumple un muy importante rol en la salud, tanto por ser un importantísimo factor de prevención para el desarrollo de las peores enfermedades mortales, así como para su tratamiento.
Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies
Monica Dinu, Rosanna Abbate, Gian Franco Gensini, Alessandro Casini & Francesco Sofi.
Background: Beneficial effects of vegetarian and vegan diets on health outcomes have been supposed in previous studies.
Aim of this study was to clarify the association between vegetarian,
vegan diets, risk factors for chronic diseases, risk of all-cause
mortality, incidence and mortality from cardio-cerebrovascular diseases,
total cancer and specific type of cancer (colorectal, breast, prostate
and lung), through meta-analysis.
Methods: A comprehensive search of Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and Google Scholar was conducted.
Eighty-six cross-sectional and 10 cohort prospective studies were
included. The overall analysis among cross-sectional studies reported
significant reduced levels of body mass index, total cholesterol,
LDL-cholesterol, and glucose levels in vegetarians and vegans versus
omnivores. With regard to prospective cohort studies, the analysis
showed a significant reduced risk of incidence and/or mortality from
ischemic heart disease (RR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.82) and incidence of
total cancer (RR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.98) but not of total
cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, all-cause mortality and
mortality from cancer. No significant association was evidenced when
specific types of cancer were analyzed. The analysis conducted among
vegans reported significant association with the risk of incidence from
total cancer (RR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95), despite obtained only in a
limited number of studies.
This comprehensive meta-analysis reports a significant protective
effect of a vegetarian diet versus the incidence and/or mortality from
ischemic heart disease (−25%) and incidence from total cancer (−8%).
Vegan diet conferred a significant reduced risk (−15%) of incidence from